These fish were found downstream of domestic sewage effluents. At present, there is no research to suggest that human health may be at risk from EDCs in drinking water, says Frans Schulting, managing director of the Global Water Research Coalition, because water treatments are so effective and concentrations of EDCs are so low in developed countries.
Priorities for occupational safety and health research in Europe for the years 2013—2020 - Section 9. However, Ternes says, this may not be cost-effective in older works, which would have to be enlarged to allow for longer sludge retention times.
Non-occupational exposures include diet, non-dietary ingestion and inhalation of indoor dust and air, and contact with products containing EDCs e.
Komori, K. Exposure to endocrine disruptors can cause: What are they?
Among marine species, predators such as swordfish and bluefin tuna have been found to harbour high concentrations of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Reverse osmosis is probably the best way of removing EDCs, says Snyder. Granular activated carbon is being tested at two UK wastewater treatment plants.
GAC technology removes endocrine disrupters very efficiently, says Ternes, but it is an expensive option for wastewater treatment because the carbon needs to be replaced regularly.
Mining, refining, smelting, pesticides, electronics manufacture, construction, medical industry. Early studies centred on DDT, especially its impact on egg viability in birds.
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Several pesticides and organochlorine compounds have been demonstrated to affect the reproductive cycle in laboratory animals. BPA and phthalates tend to leach from plastic containers into the beverages or food they hold. Filter your tap water.
The carbon filters will need to be replaced regularly because organic matter in the effluent will clog them up, he explains. Such regulations are not entirely protective, however, since many chemicals known to adversely affect the endocrine system may still escape into the environment through improper handling of wastes or products that already contain the chemicals.